Scientific Papers

A Growing Compilation of the Important Research and Published Scientific Papers Related to Metabolic Health

Fasting Lipoprotein and Postprandial Triacylglycerol Responses to a Lowcarbohydrate Diet Supplemented With n-3 Fatty Acids

Jeff S. Volek, PhD, RD; Ana L. Gómez , MS; William J. Kraemer , PhD

Single arm prospective with 10 Participants:  A hypocaloric low-carbohydrate diet rich in MUFA and supplemented with n-3 fatty acids significantly reduced postabsorptive and postprandial TG in men that were not hypertriglyceridemic as a group before the diet.  This may be viewed as a clinically significant positive adaptation in terms of cardiovascular risk status.


Effect of 6-month Adherence to a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Program

Eric C Westman, MD, MHS; William S Yancy, MD; Joel S Edman, DSc; Keith F Tomlin; Christine E Perkins, MSW

Single arm prospective with 51 participants:  In these subjects, the mean body weight decreased 10.3% +/- 5.9% from baseline to 6 months. The mean percentage of body weight that was fat decreased 2.9% +/- 3.2% from baseline to 6 months. Serum total cholesterol level decreased 11 +/- 26 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased 10…


Body Composition and Hormonal Responses to a Carbohydrate-restricted Diet

Jeff S. Volek; Matthew J. Sharman; Dawn M. Love; Neva G. Avery; Ana L. G[oacute]mez; Timothy P. Scheett; William J. Kraemer

Single arm propective with 12 participants:  Authors conclude that a carbohydrate-restricted diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men, which may be partially mediated by the reduction in circulating insulin concentrations.


Results of Use of Metformin and Replacement of Starch With Saturated Fat in Diets of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

James H. Hays; Robert T. Gorman; K. M. M. Shakir

Retrospective chart review:  Addition of saturated fat and removal of starch from a highmonounsaturated fat and starch-restricted diet improved glycemic control and were associated with weight loss without detectable adverse effects on serum lipids.


An Isoenergetic Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Improves Serum HDL Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Concentrations, the Total Cholesterol to HDL Cholesterol Ratio and Postprandial Pipemic Responses Compared With a Low Fat Diet in Normal Weight, Normolipidemic Women

Jeff S. Volek; Matthew J. Sharman; Ana L. Gómez; Timothy P. Scheett; William J. Kraemer

Ramdomized crossover with 10 participants:  In normal weight, normolipidemic women, a short-term very low carbohydrate diet modestly increased LDL-C, yet there were favorable effects on cardiovascular disease risk status by virtue of a relatively larger increase in HDL-C and a decrease in fasting and postprandial triaclyglycerols.


Effects of a Lowcarbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Overweight Adolescents

Stephen B. Sondike, MD; Nancy Copperman, MS, RD; Marc S. Jacobson, MD

RCT with 30 participants:  To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet with those of a low-fat (LF) diet on weight loss and serum lipids in overweight adolescents. The LC group lost more weight (mean, 9.9 +/- 9.3 kg vs 4.1 +/- 4.9 kg) and had improvement in non-HDL cholesterol levels. There were no adverse…


A Low-carbohydrate as Compared With a Lowfat Diet in Severe Obesity

Frederick F. Samaha, MD; Nayyar Iqbal, MD; Prakash Seshadri, MD; Kathryn L. Chicano, CRNP; Denise A. Daily, RD; Joyce McGrory, CRNP; Terrence Williams, BS; Monica Williams, BS; Edward J. Gracely, PhD; and Linda Stern, MD

RCT with 132 participants:  Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fatrestricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost.


Clinical Use of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet to Treat the Dyslipidemia of the Metabolic Syndrome

Joseph T. Hickey; Lisa Hickey ; William S. YancyJr.; Juanita Hepburn; Eric C. Westman

Retrospective Cohort:  A carbohydrate-restricted diet recommendation led to improvements in lipid profiles and lipoprotein subclass traits of the metabolic syndrome in a clinical outpatient setting, and should be considered as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome.


Effect of a High Saturated Fat and No-starch Diet on Serum Lipid Subfractions in Patients With Documented Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

James H. Hays, MD; Angela DiSabatino, RN, MS; Robert T. Gorman, PhD; Simi Vincent, PhD, MD; Michael E. Stillabower, MD

Prospective single arm:  To determine whether a diet of high saturated fat and avoidance of starch (HSF-SA) results in weight loss without adverse effects on serum lipids in obese nondiabetic patients.  HSF-SA diet results in weight loss after 6 weeks without adverse effects on serum lipid levels verified by nuclear magnetic resonance, and further weight loss…


A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity

Gary D. Foster, PhD; Holly R. Wyatt, MD; James O. Hill, PhD; Brian G. McGuckin, EdM; Carrie Brill, BS; B. Selma Mohammed, MD, PhD; Philippe O. Szapary, MD; Daniel J. Rader, MD; Joel S. Edman, DSc; Samuel Klein, MD

RCT with 63 participants:  The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss (4%) than did the conventional diet for the first six months, but the differences were not significant at one year.  The lowcarbohydrate diet was associated with a greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease.